TROOP•444

Old Hickory Council - Hanging Rock District

Troop 444: Animal Science Merit Badge

 

Animal Science

 

 

Requirements

  1. Name four breeds of livestock in each of the following classifications: horses, dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, hogs. Tell their principal uses and merits. Tell where the breeds originated.
  2. List five diseases in each of the classifications in requirement 1. Also list five diseases of poultry. . Describe the symptoms of each disease and explain how each is contracted and how it could be prevented.
  3. Explain the major differences in the digestive systems of ruminants, horses, pigs, and poultry. Explain how the differences structure and function among these four types of digestive tracts affect the nutritional management of these species.
  4. Select one type of animal - beef cow, dairy cow, horse, sheep, goat, or hog, or a poultry flock - and tell how you would properly manage it. Include in your discussion nutritional (feeding) concerns, housing, disease prevention, waste control/removal, and breeding programs if appropriate.
  5. Explain the importance of setting clear goals for any animal breeding program. Tell how purebred lines of animals are produced. Explain the practice of crossbreeding and the value of this practice.
  6. Complete ONE of the following options:
        o BEEF CATTLE OPTION
            A. Visit a farm or ranch where beef cattle are produced under any of these systems:
                1. Feeding market cattle for harvest;
                2. Cow/calf operation, producing feeder cattle for sale to commercial cattle feeders;
                3. Producing purebred cattle for sale as breeding stock to others.

            Talk with the operator to learn how the cattle were handled, fed, weighed, and shipped. Describe
            what you saw and explain what you learned. If you cannot visit a cattle ranch or farm, view a video
            from a breed association, or research the Internet (with your parent's permission) for information on
            beef cattle production. Tell about your findings.

            B. Sketch a plan of a feedlot to include its forage and grain storage facilities, and loading chute for
                30 or more fattening steers, or sketch a corral plan with cutting and loading chutes for handling 50
                or more beef cows and their calves at one time.
            C. Make a sketch showing the principal wholesale and retail cuts of beef. Tell about the U.S.
                Department of Agriculture (USDA) dual grading system of beef. Tell the basis of each grade in
                each system.
            D. Define the following terms: bull, steer, bullock, cow, heifer, freemartin, heiferette, calf.

        o DAIRYING OPTION
            A. Tell how a cow or a goat converts forage and grain into milk. Explain the differences in feeds
                  typically used for dairy cows versus those fed to beef cows.
            B. Make a chart showing the components in cows' milk or goat's milk. Chart the amount of each
                  component.
            C. Explain the requirements for producing grade A milk. Tell how and why milk is pasteurized.
            D. Tell about the kinds of equipment used for milking and the sanitation standards that must be met
                  for dairy farms.
            E. Define the following terms: bull, cow, steer, heifer, springer, buck, doe, kid.
            F. Visit a dairy farm or a milk processing plant. Describe what you saw and explain what you
                  learned. If you cannot visit a dairy farm or processing plant, view a video from a breed or dairy
                  association, or research the Internet (with your parent's permission) for information on dairying.
                  Tell about your findings.

        o HORSE OPTION
            A. Make a sketch of a useful saddle horse barn and exercise yard.
            B. Tell about the history of the horse and the benefits it has brought to people. Using the four breeds
                  of horses you chose in requirement 1, discuss the different special uses of each breed.
            C. Define the following terms: mare, stallion, gelding, foal, colt, filly; mustang, quarter horse, draft
                  horse, pacer, trotter; pinto, calico, palomino, roan, overo, tobiano.
            D. Visit a horse farm. Describe what you saw and explain what you learned. If you cannot visit a
                  horse farm, view a video from a breed association, or research the Internet (with your parent's
                  permission) for information on horses. Tell about your findings.
            E. Outline the proper feeding of a horse doing light work. Explain why the amount and kind of feed
                  will change according to the kind of horse and the work it does. Describe what colic is, what can
                  cause it, and its symptoms.

        o SHEEP OPTION
            A. Make a sketch of a live lamb. Show the location of the various wholesale and retail cuts.
            B. Discuss how wools are sorted and graded.
            C. Do ONE of the following:
                1. Raise a lamb from weaning to market weight. Keep records of feed intake, weight gains,
                    medication, vaccination, and mortality. Present your records for review by your counselor.
                2. Visit a farm or ranch where sheep are raised. Describe what you saw and explain what you
                    learned. If you cannot visit a sheep farm or ranch, view a video from a breed association, or
                    research the Internet (with your parent's permission) for information on sheep . Tell about your
                    findings.
            D. Describe some differences between the production of purebred and commercial lambs. Then
                  select two breeds that would be appropriate for the production of crossbred market lambs in your
                  region. Identify which breed the ram should be.
            E. Define the following terms: wether, ewe, ram, lamb.

        o HOG OPTION
            A. Make a sketch showing the principal wholesale and retail cuts of pork. Tell about the
                  recommended USDA grades of pork. Tell the basis for each grade.
            B. Outline in writing the proper feeding programs used from the breeding of a gilt or sow through the
                  weaning of the litter. Discuss the growth and finishing periods from the breeding of a gilt or sow
                  through the weaning of the litter. Discuss the feeding programs for the growth and finishing
                  periods.
            C. Do ONE of the following:
                A. Raise a feeder pig from weaning to market weight. Keep records of feed intake, weight gains,
                     medication, vaccination, and mortality. Present your records for review by your counselor.
                B. Visit a farm where hogs are produced, or visit a packing plant handling hogs. Describe what
                     you saw and explain what you learned
            D. Define the following terms: gilt, sow, barrow, boar.

        o AVIAN OPTION
            A. Make a sketch of a layer house or broiler house showing nests, roosts, feeders, waterers, and
                  means of ventilation. Explain how insulation, ventilation, temperature controls, automatic lights,
                  and other environmental controls are used to protect birds from heat, cold, and bad weather.
            B. Explain why overcrowding is dangerous for poultry flocks.
            C. Tell about the grading of eggs. Tell how broilers (fryers) are graded. Describe the classes of
                  chicken meat.
            D. Do ONE of the following:
                1. Manage an egg-producing flock for five months. Keep records of feed purchased, eggs sold,
                     medication, vaccination, and mortality. Present your records for review by your counselor.
                2. Raise 20 chicks from hatching. Keep records of feed intake, weight gains, medication,
                     vaccination, and mortality. Present your records for review by your counselor.
                3. Visit a commercial avian production facility. Describe what you saw and explain what you
                     learned. If you cannot visit a commercial facility, view a video from a poultry association, or
                     research the Internet (with your parent's permission) for information on poultry production. Tell
                     about your findings.
            E. Define the following terms: hen, rooster, chick, capon, tom, poult.
  7. Find out about three career opportunities in animal science. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss this with your counselor, and explain why this profession might interest you.

Animal Science Worksheets for use in working on these requirements

Boy Scout Oath

On my honor, I will do my best

To do my duty to God and my Country and to obey the Scout Law;

To help other people at all times;

To keep myself physically strong, mentally awake, and morally straight.

Boy Scout Law

A Scout Is...

A Scout tells the truth.
He keeps his promises.
Honesty is part of his code of conduct.
People can depend on him.
TRUSTWORTHY
A Scout is true to his family, Scout leaders, friends, school, and nation.LOYAL
A Scout is concerned about other people. He does things willingly for others without pay or reward.HELPFUL
A Scout is a friend to all.
He is a brother to other Scouts.
He seeks to understand others.
He respects those with ideas and customs other than his own.
FRIENDLY
A Scout is polite to everyone regardless of age or position.
He knows good manners make it easier for people to get along together.
COURTEOUS
A Scout understands there is strength in being gentle.
He treats others as he wants to be treated.
He does not hurt or kill harmless things without reason.
KIND
A Scout follows the rules of his family, school, and troop.
He obeys the laws of his community and country.
If he thinks these rules and laws are unfair, he tries to have them changed in an orderly manner rather than disobey them.
OBEDIENT
A Scout looks for the bright side of things.
He cheerfully does tasks that come his way. He tries to make others happy.
CHEERFUL
A Scout works to pay his way and to help others.
He saves for unforeseen needs.
He protects and conserves natural resources.
He carefully uses time and property.
THRIFTY
A Scout can face danger even if he is afraid.
He has the courage to stand for what he thinks is right even if others laugh at or threaten him.
BRAVE
A Scout keeps his body and mind fit and clean.
He goes around with those who believe in living by these same ideals.
He helps keep his home and community clean.
CLEAN
A Scout is reverent toward God.
He is faithful in his religious duties.
He respects the beliefs of others.
REVERENT